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Die aktuelle Publikation

Inhibitoren der DNA-Reparatur: Neue Wege in Kombination mit ionisierender Strahlung

Different Impacts of DNA-PK and mTOR Kinase Inhibitors in Combination with Ionizing Radiation on HNSCC and Normal Tissue Cells

Nina Klieber,Laura S Hildebrand, Eva Faulhaber, Julia Symank, Nicole Häck, Annamaria Härtl, Lukas KuhlmannRainer FietkauLuitpold V Distel

Despite substantial advancements in understanding the pathomechanisms of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), effective therapy remains challenging. The application of kinase inhibitors (KIs) in HNSCC, specifically mTOR and DNA-PK inhibitors, can increase radiosensitivity and therefore presents a promising strategy when used simultaneously with ionizing radiation (IR) in cancer treatment. Our study focused on the selective DNA-PK-inhibitor AZD7648; the selective mTOR-inhibitor Sapanisertib; and CC-115, a dual inhibitor targeting both mTOR and DNA-PK. The impact of these KIs on HNSCC and normal tissue cells was assessed using various analytical methods including cell death studies, cell cycle analysis, real-time microscopy, colony-forming assays and immunohistochemical staining for γH2AX and downstream mTOR protein p-S6. We detected a strong inhibition of IR-induced DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, particularly in AZD7648-treated HNSCC, whereas normal tissue cells repaired DNA DSB more efficiently. Additionally, AZD7648 + IR treatment showed a synergistic decline in cell proliferation and clonogenicity, along with an elevated G2/M arrest and cell death in the majority of HNSCC cell lines. CC-115 + IR treatment led to an elevation in G2/M arrest, increased cell death, and a synergistic reduction in cell proliferation, though the effect was notably lower compared to the AZD7648 + IR- treated group. Sapanisertib led to a high cellular toxicity in both HNSCC and normal tissue cells, even in non-irradiated cells. Regarding cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis and necrosis, Sapanisertib + IR was beneficial only in HPV+ HNSCC. Overall, this study highlights the potential of AZD7648 as a radiosensitizing agent in advanced-stage HPV-positive and negative HNSCC, offering a promising therapeutic strategy. However, the dual mTOR/DNA-PK-I CC-115 did not provide a distinct advantage over the use of selective KIs in our investigations, suggesting limited benefits for its application in KI + IR therapy. Notably, the selective mTOR-inhibitor Sapanisertib was only beneficial in HPV+ HNSCC and should not be applied in HPV cases.

Cells 2024, (4), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13040304

Die aktuelle Publikation

Der Inhibitor der Apoptoseinhibition: Xevinapant beim Kopf-Hals-Tumor

The Effect of Xevinapant Combined with Ionizing Radiation on HNSCC and Normal Tissue Cells and the Impact of Xevinapant on Its Targeted Proteins cIAP1 and XIAP


Julia FleischmannLaura S HildebrandLukas KuhlmannRainer FietkauLuitpold V Distel

The poor prognosis of HNSCC is partly due to treatment resistance. The SMAC mimetic Xevinapant is a promising new approach to targeted cancer therapy. Xevinapant inhibits cIAP1/2 and XIAP, leading to apoptosis, necroptosis and inhibition of prosurvival signaling. Combining Xevinapant with IR could improve therapeutic potential. The effect of Xevinapant in combination with IR on HNSCC and healthy tissue cells was investigated. Cell growth, cell death, clonogenic survival and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were studied, and intracellular cIAP1 and XIAP levels were evaluated. Xevinapant had cytostatic and cytotoxic, as well as radiosensitizing, effects on the malignant cells, while healthy tissue cells were less affected. Apoptotic and necrotic cell death was particularly affected, but the increase in residual DSBs and the reduced survival implied an additional effect of Xevinapant on DNA damage repair and other cell inactivation mechanisms. cIAP1 and XIAP levels varied for each cell line and were affected by Xevinapant and IR treatment. There was an association between higher IAP levels and increased cell death. Xevinapant appears to be a potent new drug for HNSCC therapy, especially in combination with IR. IAP levels could be an indicator for impaired DNA damage repair and increased susceptibility to cellular stress.

Cells 2023 (12):1653. doi: 10.3390/cells12121653.


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